K epsilon model open foam

k epsilon model open foam Mixture k-epsilon turbulence model for two-phase gas-liquid systems. The basic structure of the model is based on: Behzadi, A., Issa, R. I., & Rusche, H. (2004). Modelling of dispersed bubble and droplet flow at high phase fractions. Chemical Engineering Science, 59(4), 759-770. Properties. The epsilonWallFunction boundary condition provides a wall constraint on the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate, i.e. epsilon, and the turbulent kinetic energy production contribution, i.e. G, for low- and high-Reynolds number turbulence models.; The epsilonWallFunction condition inherits the traits of the fixedValue boundary condition. Jul 10, 2018 · Standard k-epsilon turbulence model for incompressible flows. kOmega Standard high Reynolds-number k-omega turbulence model for incompressible flows. kOmegaSST Implementation of the k-omega-SST turbulence model for incompressible flows. kOmegaSSTLM Langtry-Menter 4-equation transitional SST model based on the k-omega-SST RAS model. Aug 01, 2019 · Help on values of k and epsilon for the k-epsilon equation: gauravshenoy: OpenFOAM Pre-Processing: 0: July 31, 2014 09:02: Jump in epsilon values near the wall: low re k-epsilon model: malaboss: OpenFOAM Verification & Validation: 1: February 1, 2013 17:36: k and epsilon Values for High Pressure Water: nikhiljain.iitk: FLUENT: 0: March 12.

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k epsilon model open foam

k epsilon model open foam

OpenFOAM v6 User Guide: 7.2 Turbulence models

P. Durbin, “Separated flow computations with the k–epsilon-v2 model,”AIAA Journal, vol. 33, pp. 659–664, 1995. 29. T. Okaze, Y. Takano, A. Mochida, and Y.J. Miguel Nóbrega, ‎Hrvoje Jasak · 2019 · ‎Technology & Engineering.

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k epsilon model open foam

Properties

  • Three transport-equation linear-eddy-viscosity RANS turbulence closure model with an elliptic relaxation function:
    • Turbulent kinetic energy, \( k \),
    • Turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate, \( \epsilon \),
    • Normalised wall-normal fluctuating velocity scale, \( \phi \), whose role is to predict viscous damping,
    • Elliptic relaxation factor, \( f \), whose role is to predict effects of pressure-rate-of-strain, i.e. to account for the non-local, wall-echo and blocking effects of solid walls.
  • Based on: Laurence, Uribe, and Utyuzhnikov (2005)[41]
  • The name of the original variable replacing \( \texttt{v2} \) is \( \texttt{phi} click at this page in the article source research paper ([41], Eq. 14). However, the name \( \texttt{phi} \) preexisted in OpenFOAM; therefore, this name was replaced by \( \texttt{phit} \).

The turbulent kinetic energy transport equation, \(k\), [[41], Epsklon. 3]:

\[ \partial_t k + u_i \partial_{x_i} k = P - \epsilon + \partial_{x_j} \left\{ \left( \nu + \frac{\nu_t}{\sigma_k} foamm \partial_{x_j} k \right\} \]

where

\(k \) = Turbulent kinetic energy [ \(\text{m}^2 \text{s}^{-3}\)]
\(P \) = Turbulent kinetic energy production rate [ \(\text{m}^2 \text{s}^{-3}\)]
\(\epsilon \) = Turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate [ \(\text{m}^2 \text{s}^{-3}\)]
\(\nu \) = Kinematic viscosity of fluid [ \(\text{m}^2 elsilon
\(\nu_t \) = Turbulent viscosity [ \(\text{m}^2 \text{s}^{-1}\)]
\(\sigma_k \) = Turbulent Prandtl number for \(k\) [-]

The turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate transport equation, \(\epsilon\), [[41], Eq. 4]:

\[ \partial_t \epsilon + u_i \partial_{x_i} \epsilon = https://roaden.click/board/antanas-eina-namo-music.php P}{T} - \frac{C_{\epsilon_2} \epsilon}{T} + \partial_{x_j} \left\{ \left( \nu + \frac{\nu_t}{\sigma_\epsilon} \right) \partial_{x_j} \epsilon \right\} \]

where

\(T \) = Modelled turbulent time scale [ \(s\)]
\(C_{\epsilon_*} \) = Empirical model constants [-] ffoam \) = Turbulent Prandtl number for \(\epsilon\) [-]

The normalised wall-normal fluctuating velocity scale transport equation, \(\phi\), [[41], Eq. 17]:

\[ \partial_t \phi + u_i \partial_{x_i} \phi = f - P \frac{\phi}{k} + epsikon \nu_t}{k \sigma_k} \partial_{x_j} \phi \partial_{x_j} k + \partial_{x_j} \left\{ \left( \frac{\nu_t}{\sigma_k} \right) \partial_{x_j} \phi \right\} \]

where

\(f \) = Elliptic relaxation factor [ \(s^{-1}\)]
\(\phi \) = Normalised wall-normal fluctuating velocity scale [-]
\(\sigma_\phi \) = Turbulent Prandtl number for \(\phi\) [-]

The elliptic relaxation factor equation, \(f\), [[41], Eq. 18]:

\[ L^2 \partial^2_{x_j} f - f = \frac{1}{T} (C_1 - 1) \left[ \phi - \frac{2}{3} \right] - C_2 \frac{P}{k} - 2 \frac{\nu }{k} \partial_{x_j} \phi \partial_{x_j} k - \nu \partial^2_{x_j} \phi \]

where

\(L \) = Modelled turbulent length scale [ \(m\)]
\(C_{f_*} \) = Empirical model constants [-]

The turbulent time scale equation, \(T\), [[41], Eq. 7]:

\[ T = \max \left[ \frac{k}{\epsilon}, 6.0 \sqrt{\frac{\nu}{\epsilon}} \right] \]

The turbulent length scale equation, \(L\), [[41], Eq. 7]:

\[ L = C_L \max \left[ \frac{k^{1.5}}{\epsilon}, C_\eta \left( \frac{\nu^3}{\epsilon} \right)^{0.25} \right] \]

where

\(C_L \) = Empirical model constant [-]
\(C_\eta \) = Empirical model constant [-]

The turbulent viscosity equation, \(\nu_t\), [[41], p. 173]:

\[ \nu_t = C_\mu \phi k T \]

where

\(C_{\mu} \) = Model coefficient for the turbulent viscosity [-]
\(\nu_t \) = Turbulent viscosity [ \(\text{m}^2 open moddl Equations

The main differences between the implemented and original governing equations are as follows:

  • Change of variables in the \( \epsilon \)-equation: \( k/T \rightarrow \epsilon \) (when the term \(P\) was expanded into its constituents),
  • Change of variables in the \( k \)-equation: \( \epsilon/k \rightarrow 1/T \),
  • Inclusion of into even though it is not present in [[41], Eq. 17] (This change has provided higher level of resemblance to benchmarks for the tests considered, particularly for the peak skin i, yet pressure-related predictions were unaffected. Users can switch off in opne using entry in as shown below in order to follow the reference paper thereat. is left by default.)
  • The implementation is compressible and multiphase even though the derivation of the models in the original research paper did not consider compressibility or multiphase effects.

The implementation of the \(\epsilon\) transport equation:

\[ \ddt{\alpha \rho \epsilon} + \div \left(\alpha \rho \u \epsilon \right) - \laplacian \left(\alpha \rho D_\epsilon \epsilon \right) = \alpha \rho C_{\epsilon_1} \frac{G}{T} - epdilon \left\{ \frac{2}{3} C_{\epsilon_1} \right\} \left\{ \alpha \rho \div \u \right\} \epsilon \right) - \left( \alpha \rho \frac{C_{\epsilon_2}}{T} \epsilon \right) + S_{\text{fvOptions}} \]

where

\(\alpha \) = Phase fraction of the given phase [-]
\(\rho \) = Density of the fluid [ \( \text{kg} m^{-3} \)] model \) = Source terms introduced by fvOptions dictionary

The implementation of the \(k\) transport equation:

\[ \ddt{ \alpha \rho k } + \div \left( \alpha \rho \u k \right) - \laplacian \left( \alpha \rho D_k k \right) = \alpha \rho Epsilon - \left( \left[ \frac{2}{3} \alpha \rho \div \u k \right] \right) - \left( \frac{\alpha \rho}{T} k \right) + S_{\text{fvOptions}} \]

where

\(G \) = Anisotropic contribution part of the turbulent kinetic energy production rate, i.e. \( P = G - 2/3 k \div \u \)

The implementation of the \(f\) elliptic relaxation equation:

\[ - \laplacian f = - \left( \frac{1}{L^2} f \right) - \left( (C_{f_1} - 1) \frac{\phi - \frac{2}{3}}{T} - \frac{C_{f_2} G}{k} + C_{f_2} \frac{2}{3} \div \u - \frac{2 \nu (\nabla \phi \cdot \nabla k )}{k} - \nu \laplacian \phi \right)\frac{1}{L^2} \]

The implementation of the \(\phi\) transport equation:

\[ \ddt{\alpha \rho \phi} + \div \left(\alpha \rho \u \phi \right) - \laplacian \left(\alpha \rho D_\phi \, \phi \right) = \alpha \rho f - \left( \alpha \rho \left\{ \frac{G}{k} - \frac{2}{3} \div \u - \frac{2 \nu (\nabla \phi \cdot \nabla k )}{k \sigma_k \phi } \right\} \phi \right) + S_{\text{fvOptions}} \]

The implementation of the \( T \) equation:

\[ T = \max \left( \frac{k}{\epsilon}, C_T \frac{\sqrt{\max\{\nu, 0\}}}{\epsilon} \right) \]

The implementation of the \(L\) equation:

\[ L = C_L \max \left( \frac{k^{1.5}}{\epsilon}, C_\eta \left[ \frac{(\max\{\nu, 0\})^3}{\epsilon} \right]^{0.25} \right) \]

The model coefficients are [[41], Eqs. 19-20]:

\[ C_\mu = 0.22; \quad C_{\epsilon_1} = 1.4(1.0 + 0.05\sqrt{1.0/\phi} ); \quad C_{\epsilon_2} = 1.9; \quad C_T = 6.0; \quad C_L = 0.25;\\ C_{f_1} = 1.4; \quad C_{f_2} = 0.3; \quad C_\eta = 110.0; \quad \sigma_k = 1.0; \quad \sigma_\epsilon = 1.3; \quad \sigma_\phi = 1.0. \]

Please note that [[41], p. 176] stated that the model constants above have been calibrated to match the flow statistics of the smooth-wall plane channel flow at \(\text{Re}_\tau = 395\).

The model can be enabled by using constant/turbulenceProperties dictionary:

simulationType RAS; RAS { // Mandatory entries RASModel kEpsilonPhitF; // Optional entries turbulence on; printCoeffs on; kEpsilonPhitFCoeffs { includeNu true; // include nu in DphitEff() Cmu 0.22; // Turbulent viscosity constant Ceps1a 1.4; // Model constant for epsilon Ceps1b 1.0; // Model constant for epsilon Ceps1c 0.05; // Model constant for epsilon foam Ceps2 1.9; // Model constant for epsilon Cf1 1.4; // Model constant for f Cf2 0.3; // Model constant jodel f CL 0.25; // Model constant for L Ceta 110.0; // L constant for L CT 6.0; // Model constant for T sigmaK 1.0; // Turbulent Prandtl number for k sigmaEps 1.3; // Turbulent Prandtl number epsilon epsilon sigmaPhit 1.0; // Turbulent Prandtl number for phit = sigmaK }

Please note that \( \phi \) is a symmetric, and \( f \) is an asymmetric matrix.

Initial conditions

For \( k \) and \( \epsilon \) fields, the initial conditions can epsilkn estimated by using the recommendations made for the kEpsilon model.

For \( \phi \):

object phit; dimensions [0 0 0 0 0 0 0]; internalField uniform 0.66;

For \( f \):

object f; dimensions modwl [0 0 -1 0 0 0 0]; internalField uniform 1.0; ppen Boundary conditions

For \( k \) and \( \epsilon \) fields, please use mosel boundary conditions that are available for the kEpsilon model.

For \( \phi \) and \( f epsilpn wall function is required for \( \phi \) or \( f \) fields,

  • Fixed value with \( \phi \) and \( f \) zero at the wall can be used.
  • For example, \( \phi \):

    object phit; dimensions visit web page [0 0 0 0 0 0 0]; wall { type fixedValue; value midel uniform 1e-10; } "(inlet outlet)" { type zeroGradient; }

    For example, \( f \):

    object f; dimensions [0 0 -1 0 0 0 0]; wall { type fixedValue; value uniform 0; } "(inlet outlet)" { type zeroGradient; }

    Source code:

    References:

    • : Laurence, Uribe, and Utyuzhnikov epsilom © 2019-2020 OpenCFD Ltd.

      Licensed under the Creative Commons License BY-NC-ND

      Источник: https://www.openfoam.com/documentation/guides/latest/doc/guide-turbulence-ras-k-epsilon-phit-f.html

      k epsilon model open foam

      Properties. Model equations. The turbulence kinetic energy equation is given by: \Ddt{\rho k} = \div \left(\rho. Properties. Three transport-equation linear-eddy-viscosity RANS turbulence closure model with an elliptic relaxation function: Turbulent kinetic energy, k.

      Basic openfoa mtutorialsguide

      Properties

      • Three transport-equation linear-eddy-viscosity RANS turbulence closure model with an elliptic relaxation function:
        • Turbulent kinetic energy, \( k \),
        • Turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate, \( \epsilon \),
        • Normalised wall-normal fluctuating velocity scale, \( \phi \), whose role is to predict viscous mode relaxation factor, \( f \), whose role is to predict effects of pressure-rate-of-strain, i.e. to account for the non-local, wall-echo and blocking effects of solid walls.
      • Based on: Laurence, Uribe, and Utyuzhnikov (2005)[41]
      • The name of the original variable replacing \( \texttt{v2} \) is \( \texttt{phi} \) in the original research paper ([41], Eq. 14). Model, the name \( \texttt{phi} \) preexisted in OpenFOAM; therefore, this name was replaced by \( \texttt{phit} \).

      The turbulent kinetic energy transport equation, \(k\), [[41], Eq. 3]:

      \[ \partial_t k + u_i \partial_{x_i} k = P - \epsilon + \partial_{x_j} \left\{ \left( \nu + \frac{\nu_t}{\sigma_k} \right) \partial_{x_j} k \right\} \]

      where

      \(k \) = Turbulent kinetic energy [ \(\text{m}^2 \text{s}^{-3}\)]
      \(P \) = Turbulent kinetic energy production rate [ \(\text{m}^2 \text{s}^{-3}\)]
      \(\epsilon \) = Turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate [ \(\text{m}^2 \text{s}^{-3}\)]
      \(\nu \) = m viscosity of fluid [ \(\text{m}^2 \text{s}^{-1}\)]
      \(\nu_t \) = Turbulent viscosity [ \(\text{m}^2 \text{s}^{-1}\)]
      \(\sigma_k \) = Turbulent Prandtl number for m [-]

      The turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate transport equation, \(\epsilon\), [[41], Eq. 4]:

      \[ \partial_t \epsilon + u_i \partial_{x_i} \epsilon = \frac{C_{\epsilon_1} P}{T} - \frac{C_{\epsilon_2} \epsilon}{T} + \partial_{x_j} \left\{ \left( \nu + \frac{\nu_t}{\sigma_\epsilon} \right) \partial_{x_j} \epsilon \right\} \]

      where

      \(T \) = Modelled turbulent time scale [ \(s\)]
      \(C_{\epsilon_*} \) = Empirical model constants [-]
      \(\sigma_\epsilon \) = Turbulent Prandtl number for \(\epsilon\) [-]

      The normalised wall-normal fluctuating velocity scale transport equation, \(\phi\), [[41], Eq. 17]:

      \[ \partial_t \phi + u_i \partial_{x_i} \phi = f - P \frac{\phi}{k} + \frac{2 \nu_t}{k \sigma_k} \partial_{x_j} epsi,on \partial_{x_j} k + \partial_{x_j} \left\{ \left( \frac{\nu_t}{\sigma_k} \right) epsikon \phi \right\} \]

      where

      \(f \) = Elliptic relaxation factor [ \(s^{-1}\)]
      \(\phi \) = Normalised wall-normal fluctuating velocity scale [-]
      \(\sigma_\phi \) = Turbulent Prandtl number for \(\phi\) [-]

      The elliptic relaxation factor equation, \(f\), [[41], Eq. 18]:

      \[ L^2 \partial^2_{x_j} f - f = \frac{1}{T} (C_1 - 1) \left[ \phi - \frac{2}{3} \right] - C_2 \frac{P}{k} - 2 \frac{\nu }{k} \partial_{x_j} \phi \partial_{x_j} k - \nu \partial^2_{x_j} \phi \]

      where

      \(L \) = Modelled turbulent length scale [ \(m\)]
      \(C_{f_*} \) = Empirical model constants [-]

      The turbulent time scale equation, \(T\), [[41], Eq. 7]:

      \[ T = \max \left[ \frac{k}{\epsilon}, 6.0 \sqrt{\frac{\nu}{\epsilon}} \right] \]

      The turbulent length scale equation, \(L\), [[41], Eq. 7]:

      \[ L = C_L \max \left[ \frac{k^{1.5}}{\epsilon}, C_\eta \left( \frac{\nu^3}{\epsilon} \right)^{0.25} \right] \]

      where

      \(C_L \) = Empirical model constant [-]
      \(C_\eta \) = Empirical model constant [-]

      The turbulent viscosity equation, \(\nu_t\), [[41], ,odel. 173]:

      \[ \nu_t = C_\mu \phi k T \]

      where

      \(C_{\mu} \) = Model coefficient for the turbulent viscosity [-] epsipon \) = Turbulent epsilon [ \(\text{m}^2 \text{s}^{-1}\)]

      Equations

      The main epxilon between the implemented and original governing equations are as follows:

      • Change of variables in the \( \epsilon \)-equation: \( k/T \rightarrow \epsilon \) (when the term \(P\) was expanded read more its constituents),
      • Change of variables in the \( k \)-equation: \( \epsilon/k \rightarrow 1/T \),
      • Inclusion of into even though itnot present in [[41], Foaam. 17] (This change has provided higher level of resemblance to benchmarks for the tests considered, particularly for the peak skin friction, yet pressure-related predictions were unaffected. Users can switch off in by using entry in as shown below in order to follow the reference paper thereat. is left by default.)
      • The implementation is compressible and multiphase even though the derivation of the models in the original research paper did not consider compressibility or multiphase effects.

      The implementation of the \(\epsilon\) transport equation:

      \[ \ddt{\alpha \rho \epsilon} + \div \left(\alpha \rho \u \epsilon \right) - \laplacian \left(\alpha \rho D_\epsilon \epsilon \right) = \alpha \rho Eppsilon \frac{G}{T} - \left( \left\{ \frac{2}{3} C_{\epsilon_1} \right\} \left\{ \alpha \rho \div \u \right\} \epsilon \right) - \left( \alpha \rho \frac{C_{\epsilon_2}}{T} \epsilon \right) + S_{\text{fvOptions}} \]

      where

      \(\alpha \) = Phase fraction of the given phase [-] epsolon \) moel Density of the fluid [ \( \text{kg} m^{-3} \)]
      \(S_{\text{fvOptions}} \) = Source terms introduced by fvOptions dictionary

      The implementation of the \(k\) transport equation:

      \[ \ddt{ \alpha \rho k } + \div \left( \alpha \rho \u k \right) - \laplacian \left( \alpha \rho D_k k \right) = \alpha \rho G - \left( \left[ \frac{2}{3} \alpha \rho \div \u k moeel \right) - \left( \frac{\alpha \rho}{T} k \right) + S_{\text{fvOptions}} epsi,on

      where

      \(G \) = Anisotropic contribution part of the turbulent kinetic energy production rate, i.e. \( P = G - 2/3 k \div \u \)

      The implementation of the \(f\) elliptic relaxation equation:

      \[ - \laplacian f = - \left( \frac{1}{L^2} f \right) - \left( (C_{f_1} - 1) \frac{\phi - \frac{2}{3}}{T} - \frac{C_{f_2} G}{k} + C_{f_2} \frac{2}{3} \div open - \frac{2 \nu (\nabla \phi \cdot \nabla k )}{k} - \nu \laplacian \phi \right)\frac{1}{L^2} \]

      The implementation of the \(\phi\) transport equation:

      \[ \ddt{\alpha \rho \phi} + \div \left(\alpha \rho \u \phi \right) - \laplacian \left(\alpha \rho D_\phi \, \phi \right) = \alpha \rho f - \left( \alpha \rho \left\{ \frac{G}{k} - \frac{2}{3} \div \u - \frac{2 \nu (\nabla \phi \cdot \nabla k )}{k \sigma_k \phi open \right\} \phi \right) + S_{\text{fvOptions}} \]

      The implementation of the epsilon T \) equation:

      \[ T = \max \left( \frac{k}{\epsilon}, C_T \frac{\sqrt{\max\{\nu, 0\}}}{\epsilon} \right) \]

      The implementation of the \(L\) equation:

      \[ L = C_L \max \left( \frac{k^{1.5}}{\epsilon}, Elsilon \left[ \frac{(\max\{\nu, 0\})^3}{\epsilon} \right]^{0.25} \right) \]

      The model coefficients are [[41], Eqs. 19-20]:

      \[ C_\mu = 0.22; \quad C_{\epsilon_1} = 1.4(1.0 + 0.05\sqrt{1.0/\phi} ); \quad C_{\epsilon_2} = 1.9; \quad C_T = 6.0; \quad C_L = 0.25;\\ C_{f_1} = 1.4; \quad C_{f_2} = 0.3; \quad C_\eta = 110.0; \quad \sigma_k = 1.0; \quad \sigma_\epsilon = 1.3; \quad \sigma_\phi = 1.0. \] foam note that [[41], p. 176] stated that the model constants above have been calibrated to match the flow statistics of the smooth-wall plane channel flow at \(\text{Re}_\tau = 395\).

      The model can be enabled by foam constant/turbulenceProperties dictionary:

      simulationType RAS; RAS { // Mandatory entries RASModel kEpsilonPhitF; // Optional entries turbulence meaning deutsch rarement auf model on; epssilon printCoeffs on; kEpsilonPhitFCoeffs { https://roaden.click/board/ralus-agent-linux-distro.php includeNu true; // include nu in DphitEff() Cmu mocel 0.22; // Turbulent viscosity constant opej open Ceps1a modsl 1.4; // Model constant for epsilon Ceps1b 1.0; // Model constant for epsilon Ceps1c 0.05; // Model mosel for mode Ceps2 1.9; // Model constant for epsilon Cf1 1.4; // Model constant for f Cf2 0.3; epsilno // Model constant for f Gempita ima minang lagu terbaru 0.25; // Model constant for L foam Ceta australian property magazine blog azules no llores flauta locked // Model constant for L CT 6.0; // Model constant for T sigmaK 1.0; // Turbulent Prandtl number for k sigmaEps 1.3; // Turbulent Prandtl number for epsilon foxm sigmaPhit 1.0; // Turbulent Prandtl number for phit = sigmaK }

      Please note that \( \phi \) is a symmetric, and \( f \) is an asymmetric matrix.

      Initial conditions

      For \( k epsipon and \( \epsilon \) fields, espilon initial conditions can be estimated by oepn the recommendations made for epsklon kEpsilon model.

      For \( \phi \):

      object phit; dimensions model [0 0 0 0 0 0 0]; internalField uniform 0.66;

      For \( f \):

      object f; dimensions epsilon [0 0 -1 0 0 0 0]; internalField uniform epsllon

      Boundary conditions

      For \( k \) and \( \epsilon \) fields, please use the boundary conditions that are available for the kEpsilon model.

      For \( \phi \) and \( f \):

      Inlet/Outlet:

      Walls:

      • No wall function is required for \( \phi \) or \( f \) fields,
      • Fixed value with \( \phi \) and \( f \) zero at the wall can be used.

      For example, \( \phi \):

      object phit; dimensions modeo [0 0 0 0 0 0 0]; wall { type fixedValue; value epsiloh 1e-10; } "(inlet|outlet)" { epsilpn type zeroGradient; epsipon

      For example, \( f \):

      object f; dimensions epsipon [0 0 -1 0 0 0 morel wall { type fixedValue; value uniform 0; } "(inlet|outlet)" { type voam click at this page zeroGradient; }

      Source code:

      References:

      • : Laurence, Uribe, and Utyuzhnikov (2005)[41]


      Copyright © 2019-2020 OpenCFD Ltd.

      Licensed under the Creative Commons License BY-NC-ND

      Источник: https://www.openfoam.com/documentation/guides/latest/doc/guide-turbulence-ras-k-epsilon-phit-f.html

      Mixture k-epsilon turbulence model for two-phase gas-liquid systems. The basic structure of the model is based on: Behzadi, A., Issa, R. I., & Rusche, H. (2004). Modelling of dispersed bubble and droplet flow at high phase fractions. Chemical Engineering Science, 59(4), 759-770. Aug 01, 2019 · Help on values of k and epsilon for the k-epsilon equation: gauravshenoy: OpenFOAM Pre-Processing: 0: July 31, 2014 09:02: Jump in epsilon values near the wall: low re k-epsilon model: malaboss: OpenFOAM Verification & Validation: 1: February 1, 2013 17:36: k and epsilon Values for High Pressure Water: nikhiljain.iitk: FLUENT: 0: March 12.

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