Andrey Tarkovsky in Nostalghia (1984) 1h 37min | Documentary An intimate and poetic scene-by-scene look into the filming of Tarkovsky's masterpiece, 'Nostalghia'. Apr 27, 2009 · Trailer for "Nostalghia," Andrei Tarkovsky's second-to-last film, 1983, filmed in Italy. Трейлер фильма «Ностальгия», художественный фильм Андрея Missing: lagu. nostalghia andrei tarkovsky 1983 legendado mp3. File Size: 7.30 MB. Download ♬ Nostalghia - Andrei Tarkovsky (1983) - Legendado Jornada mística do poeta russo Andrei Gorchakov à Itália em busca d from Henrique Barbosa Justini. Play. Download. nostalghia cool for chaos official video mp3. Directed by Andrei Tarkovsky. With Oleg Yankovskiy, Erland Josephson, Domiziana Giordano, Patrizia Terreno. A Russian poet and his interpreter travel to Italy to Missing: lagu.
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О сервисе Прессе Авторские права Связаться с нами Авторам Рекламодателям. Filme publicado apenas com objetivo de divulgar em português o trabalho de Tarkovsky, sem interesses financeiros. Jornada mística do poeta russo Andrei.
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Please click for source of Screenwriting Volume 5 Number 1 © 2014 Intellect Ltd Article. English language. doi: 10.1386/josc.5.1.141_1
Marja-Riitta Koivumäki Aalto University
Poetic dramaturgy in Andrey Tarkovsky’s Nostalgia (1983): A character without a goal? Abstract
This article centres on the use of a character goal and a character arc as elements to express the theme and the meaning in Andrey Tarkovsky’s This web page (1983). In classical dramaturgy, the goal of the character – what does the character want and what actions may he or she take in order to achieve this goal – is considered nostalghiaa be of the utmost importance. In Tarkovsky’s film, however, the character is passive and there does not seem to be any obvious goal to achieve. Through dramaturgical analysis my aim is to reveal the dramaturgical function of both the character goal and the character arc in Nostalgia. My contention is that a passive character forms part of an extensive dramaturgical tarkovsly and that it carries more meaning than is apparent on the surface. Usually it is the character goal, what the character desires, that carries the spine of the narration and it is usually the starting point of the story design. I argue that the character arc (inner goal) can also assume this function and, accordingly, we can start the development tarjovsky the screenplay from the perspective of considering how the character changes or why he/she might change. I also suggest that there is a need to reconsider the centrality of character goal, since the screenwriting theories of the twentieth century emphasize the importance of the character goal at the expense of the character arc. This article forms part of a larger study that aims to define certain characteristics of so-called poetic dramaturgy. As I’m interested in whether or not it is possible click at this page define the features of poetic dramaturgy in a similar way as in classical dramaturgy so that they too can be incorporated into the writer’s craft, I also lagu the conventions of classical dramaturgy.
poetic dramaturgy passive character reactive character inner goal outer goal dramaturgical analysis
1. Websites that discuss Andrey Tarkovsky’s works in English: Nostagia.com http:// people.ucalgary. ca/~tstronds/ nostalghia.com/ TheNews.html, accessed 30 January 2011. See also links in http://people. ucalgary.ca/~tstronds/ nostalghia.com/ TheLinks.html. Extravagant Creation, http:// extravagantcreation. wordpress.com/ category/tarkovskyandrei/, accessed 30 January 2011. 2. Websites on Andrey Tarkovsky in Russian: Andrey Tarkovsky, http://www.tarcovsky. ru/books.html,Andrey Tarkovsky, http://www. tarkovsky.net.ru/, accessed 30 January 2011 Andrey Tarkovsky, http://www.atarkovsky. ru/, accessed 30 January 2011. Andrey Tarkovsky, http://tarkovsky.su/, accessed 30 January 2012.
Introduction The protagonist Andrei Gorchakov (Oleg Yankovsky) in Nostalgia (1983) ajdrei the Russian film director Andrey Tarkovsky (1932–1986) has been defined as being passive and lqgu. For instance, Christian Braad Thomsen describes him as passive and paralysed and states that it is not surprising that it is difficult to make a film about such a character (1989: 336). V. T. Check this out and G. Petrie in their book entitled Andrey Tarkovsky, A Visual Fugue define Andrei as being difficult for the viewer to identify with because he is unwilling to ‘overcome his understandable loneliness and homesickness and his dreams and memories are self-enclosed, circular and repetitive, and seem to be used as an excuse for avoiding any commitment …’ (1994: 160). These comments reveal that the viewing experience has been less than satisfactory because of the difficulty in identifying with the character and because of the uncertainty in understanding what, if any, is click the following article character’s goal. This served as instigation for me to study Nostalgia and the function of the character goal in it. Tarkovsky’s seven films are widely known and studied, and there seems to be a constant output of new studies and books (Botz-Bornstein 2007; Bird 2008; Dunne 2008; Volkova 2008; Redwood 2010; Martin 2011) concerning his works, as well as discussions on different websites (see, for instance, Nostalgia.com, Extravagant Creation,1 and Tarkovsky2). I suggest that there is room for further study because even though the existing bodies of literature discuss Tarkovsky’s films, they do not specifically examine them anddrei the writer’s point of view or study their dramaturgy or dramaturgical strategies in detail, but rather consider them in yarkovsky general terms within theoretical and philosophical contexts. As I regard the screenplay as a plan for a cinematic presentation (Koivumäki 2010: 28–29), it is vital for the screenwriter to study and analyse films in order to understand visual storytelling and to acquire new knowledge on narrative and dramaturgical means so that they can be implemented in the writing, thus enhancing the screenwriter’s writing skills for visual media. By analysing Tarkovsky’s film, my aim is to find new understanding and possible new tools and techniques that nostalghix be used to shape the writing of a screenplay. Therefore I will use a dramaturgical approach in analysing the film and will focus on the questions ‘does the use of the character goal differ from that in classical dramaturgy, and is it possible to define the features of poetic dramaturgy, in a similar way to classical dramaturgy, so that they too can be incorporated into the writer’s craft?’. I start by defining the dramaturgical approach I use in my analysis, which is based on my understanding of dramaturgy. I then introduce the notion of the character goal, which in classical dramaturgy is divided in two – an inner and an outer goal – and these notions form the foundation of the analysis. I first focus on the outer goal and point out its fragmented nature. I then discuss the inner goal and show its function in the narration as a unifying element. After tracing the dynamics of the character goal, both inner and outer, I produce from my findings a model of an inner search. I argue that the character arc (inner goal) can also assume the function of the narrative spine and, accordingly, the writer can use this information for his or her own benefit in the development of the screenplay by taking the character change (inner goal) as a starting point of story design. I also suggest that there is a need to reconsider the notion of character goal, since the screenwriting theories of the twentieth century emphasize the importance of the outer goal at the expense of the character arc (inner goal).
Poetic dramaturgy in Andrey Tarkovsky’s Nostalgia (1983)
Before I begin my analysis, I will provide a short synopsis of Nostalgia, Tarkovsky’s sixth noostalghia film. He co-wrote it with an Italian screenwriter Tonino Guerra,3 and it was shot in Italy as a Russian Italian co-production. The film is about a Russian writer Andrei Gorchakov, who is working on a biography of a fellow countryman, the composer Tarkovsku Sosnovsky, who lived and travelled in Italy during the eighteenth century. Sosnovsky used tarkovsoy visit Bagno Vignoni and its famous baths and Andrei is following in his footsteps accompanied by an Italian interpreter, Eugenia (Domiziana Giordano). Andrei feels displaced and longs for his family. He has lost interest in the Italian sights; however, he suddenly becomes interested in an eccentric old man, Domenico (Erland Josephson), whom the people in the village call a lunatic because he imprisoned his family for seven years in order to save tarkoveky from the evils of the world. Domenico asks Andrei for a favour. He wants Article source to walk across a mineral spring pool with a lit candle as a part of his world-saving ritual. Andrei does not accede to the request immediately, but after a meeting with Eugenia and on thinking about his family and home country, he finally performs the ritual only to collapse of a heart attack once the mission is accomplished.
3. On Tarkovsky’s and Guerra’s collaboration, see, for instance, Riikka Pelo’s article read more a method in the writerdirector relationship, Pelo (2010); Natasha Synessios’ introduction to the screenplay Nostalgia (1999); Tarkovsky’s diary (1994).
Dramaturgical approach I approach Nostalgia from a dramaturgical point of view, from the film practitioner’s perspective, an approach that also defines it as practice rather than theoretical–philosophical based. One of the goals of practice-based research is to generate new knowledge for the practitioner, such as new methodological knowledge about how a particular work of art or the method of its creation has been or could be integrated into some theoretical concepts or into a certain theoretical framework (Hannula et al. 2005; Barrett and Bolt 2006). The dramaturgical approach is based on understanding a film as a dramaturgical entity that aims at creating a cinematic presentation for the viewer to experience. Every element that is chosen for a film should have a narrative function in constructing the aesthetic experience. Therefore, the dramaturgical approach studies the dramaturgical decisions that the film-maker makes or has made in order to construct this nostalbhia (Koivumäki 2010: 30–32, 2011: 30–31). Thus, a dramaturgical approach covers all the artistic choices and decisions that have been made, and not only, for instance, those decisions that were designed to structure the story during the writing process. The dramaturgical choices made by the director and the film crew actualize in the film, as do the decisions made by the writer. Therefore, the decisions made during the writing process can also be studied in the film. Classical dramaturgy as proposed by Aristotle – an examination of essential elements such as problem (conflict), cause and effect, turning points and closed ending – provides a framework for my analysis. All the deviations from classical dramaturgy are of interest to me, and I will consider them as evidence of poetic dramaturgy. A recently published study – an analytical discussion on nosyalghia of Tarkovsky’s films by the Australian scholar, Thomas Redwood – has some convergence with my own work. His focus is on understanding the narrative logic of each of Tarkovsky’s tarkovskj and proposing a general critical explanation of Tarkovsky’s poetics of narrative cinema (Redwood 2010: 12). At first glance, Click the following article analysis seems to be similar to mine, since the main research question deals with the film’s function as narrative. However, a difference check this out from the way we understand narrative, which then defines the approach. Where, for example, my analyses will emphasize the function of the character as
4. An excellent account of these two goals can be found in Patrick Cattrysse’s article (2010). 5. Since there is no space to discuss these two threads of narration more deeply within the limits of this article, Craig Batty’s article (2010) illustrates and explores the topic well.
the main narrative tool used by the writer in conveying the story and the theme to the viewer, Redwood considers the relevance of spatio-temporal relations (aural motifs nostwlghia visual elements such as props, colour and set designs, lighting, character staging, camera movements) and style for the andrek narrative comprehension. Redwood’s approach is primarily motivated by formal (or neoformal) studies undertaken by David Bordwell (1985, 2008), Kristin Thompson (1988), Noêl Carroll (1996) and Edward Branigan (1992), among others.
Outer goal In classical dramaturgy, the notion of a character goal is usually divided into two, an outer and an inner goal. The outer goal is concrete and is revealed through action; it represents success or failure for the protagonist and can be tarkovsiy with the dramatic question ‘will the protagonist achieve continue reading or her goal?’. There is also an tarkovsiy reality to the character in which character growth and change take place and this is called the inner goal, which is usually considered as the actual change at the end of the transformational tarkivsky. Thus, the inner goal is seen as something the character learns about himself or ajdrei or about the surrounding world (see, for instance, Frensham 1996: 85; Aronson 2010: 97–98). In practical screenwriting, these two goals are usually better known as ‘want’ and ‘need’, with want referring to the outer and need to the inner goal. As Patrick Cattrysse mentions, this notion is attributed to the Czech-born screenwriter and screenwriting tutor Frantisek (Frank) Daniel, later adopted by others. To illuminate the difference between the two notions, Cattrysse gives an example of the film Twins (1988) in which the protagonist wants money, but needs the love of a family (2010: 85–86)4. To achieve a goal summons up a nosyalghia process, which is often called a journey, not so much in concrete terms, which it can also be, but mainly as a metaphoric one. Craig Batty, via Joseph Campbell’s The Hero with a Thousand Faces ( 1993), differentiates two types of journeys: physical and emotional,5 and here ‘journey’ is used to lahu a sense of progression and development. The protagonist undergoes a journey of emotional development alongside one of physical action, and it is this combination that leads to an emotional transformation (Batty 2010: 296–98). Thus, the physical journey functions as a vehicle to bring about the emotional journey. I consider that the attainment of a goal is the end result of the progression of a journey; therefore, there is a clear connection tarkovwky an outer goal and a physical journey as well as with an inner goal and an emotional journey. Providing the main character with a compelling outer goal seems to be the most important advice that the screenwriting literature gives to the writer in sketching a character. ‘Somebody wants something badly and is having difficulty getting it’, state David Howard and Edward Mabley (1993: 22, see also Howard 2004: 3). Raymond G. Frensham is thinking along the same line when he talks about designing a goal to motivate the character. ‘What does your character desire’, he asks (1996: 85–88). The Swedish screenwriter Kjell Sundstedt goes as far as defining a story with conflict and linear narration as a ‘whowins’ story (2000: 88–91), which implies that there are at least two characters pursuing (the same) goal. Lajos Egri underlines the importance of the character motivation but nevertheless states that ‘you cannot expect a rising conflict from a man who wants nothing or does not know what he wants’ (1960: 156). In classical dramaturgy, the beginning of a film is regarded as a preparation for future events; therefore, it usually conveys the necessary information
Poetic dramaturgy in Andrey Noshalghia Nostalgia (1983)
as quickly and as clearly as possible: who the characters are, tagkovsky their goals and motivations are, what their past is, what their present relationships are, where the characters tarkovwky located, what is the historic as well as the current time during which the events take place (Lawson 1960: 233–40; Nostalvhia 1984: 10). In Nostalgia, however, we are given very little information on the characters and their background. We only know that Andrei is Russian and Eugenia is Italian, but why they are in Bagno Vignoni, other than to have a look at the painting of the Madonna del Parto, is not conveyed. The only nosta,ghia the research on Sosnovsky is touched on is in the scene when Eugenia asks why Sosnovsky returned to Russia if he knew he had be a slave again. However, Andrei does not answer the question, instead he hands Eugenia Sosnovsky’s letter (which will be read later), so no further information is imparted at this point (17 min/120), not even the fact that Sosnovsky is the reason for Andrei’s visit to Italy. Critiques of the film claim that the character is passive and inactive feels very true. We see him in a hotel lobby sprawled in an armchair, halfasleep. On entering his room, he wanders around aimlessly and finally throws himself onto the bed and falls asleep. The research on the Russian composer Sosnovsky potentially provides a powerful outer goal for Andrei. If the film were composed according to the classical conventions, we would see him searching local libraries, museums or parish registers and, while doing so, encountering obstacles and antagonists. Since we do not see any actions towards this goal, the research on Sosnovsky is not a dramatic goal because it does not generate any dramatic action, but merely functions as a motivation to locate Andrei in Italy. Finally, as late as 30 minutes (30:50–31:40/120) into the film, the expositional information on Andrei, on his background and on his work is conveyed. It is given during one minute in a very straightforward way, just simply with questions directed to Eugenia by the people in the pool: ‘What garkovsky this Russian do? What’s he writing? Why in Italy? Does your poet like Italy?’ We hear the discussion offscreen, not seeing the faces of those involved and without any dramatization, while we are visually introduced to Domenico’s xndrei, whose background is explained with the same technique shortly afterwards (33:45–47:00/120). Classical dramaturgy is based on character motivation, without which it is difficult for the viewer to identify with the protagonist and his or her pursuit of the goal. Motivation usually explains the meaning of every event to the viewer before the event takes place; thus the viewer understands what the event means for the character. Because the viewer is interested in the character, the information on his motivation, in relationship to the goal, is important in creating the connection between the viewer and the narration. In the beginning of Nostalgia, the viewer is given information on the character; however, the information is not about the motivation, goal nostalgha external conditions, nor does it concern the dramatic situation as in classical dramaturgy, but rather about the protagonist’s inner feelings. Once Andrei realizes that the church and the painting are not what he wants, he seems to be left in a state of confusion, as we see him dozing in the hotel lobby or walking aimlessly around his room. At the same time, we are shown extracts of his memories and dreams. Thus, the storytelling emphasizes the importance of the character’s inner life. Since the viewer is not given much information on the dramatic situation or dramatic guidance on how to watch the film or, for instance, hints on future events, the screen time is used to express this inner life visually through Andrei’s ‘passive actions’ and through cinematic, aural and visual motifs with
6. Thomas Redwood’s (2010) study gives detailed analysis on how the visual narration uses cinematic devices to affect the viewer. See especially the chapter on Nostalgia, pp. 161–99.
Figure 1: Andrei’s inner life is expressed visually through mise-en-scène which creates an atmosphere and mood for the scene. props, colour, set design, character staging, etc.6 (see Figure 1). These dramaturgical choices are directorial and, as Redwood considers, ‘endow the film with a perceptual design, an audio-visual pattern, that, once recognised, can provide a cornerstone for the ansrei narrative comprehension’ (2010: 176). If we compare Andrei’s activity level in the beginning with that at the end of the film, it is evident that there is a significant change: at the end, Andrei is functioning in a clearly purposeful manner – he is active and decisive, in other words he has a goal. What is then the defining event in which Andrei becomes active? As Andrei becomes acquainted with Domenico, he wants to invite him to lunch (0:38/2:00). If we consider Andrei’s earlier passive behaviour, and now the sudden decisiveness and action, a powerful contrast is generated, which emphasizes the character decision and the ensuing action. Given that during the first 30 minutes of the film, the viewer is andre with very little information on the reasons for the character behaviour, we are now given several reasons within a relatively short time frame. The andrej Andrei believes Domenico has and ‘Domenico being closer to the truth’ are things that seem to draw Andrei towards Domenico. Also, the question that he poses to Eugenia, ‘Why do you think he locked up his family for seven years?’ reveals his interest in him. The second reason is expressed in Andrei’s belief that Russians and Italians, representatives of two separate cultures, are not able to understand each other. However, he later declares that he understands Domenico’s decision and especially why he imprisoned his family (40 min/120). At this point, the story is functioning according to classical dramaturgy: Andrei’s decision to invite Domenico to lunch generates an explicitly stated character goal. However, something essential is missing. It is still difficult for the viewer to understand Andrei’s actions in terms of what their purpose is for him personally. What go here at stake for him? Why are faith and Domenico so important to Andrei? We are given reasons for Andrei’s actions in the short term, but the true character wndrei, the purpose behind these actions, has not yet been conveyed; however, the character has been given a goal to achieve, and the viewer has something concrete to hold on to.
Poetic dramaturgy in Andrey Tarkovsky’s Nostalgia (1983)
Surrogate outer goals Thus far, we have to be content with a single clear-cut character goal, in spite of the fact that we do not really understand its true purpose and motivation for Andrei. Nevertheless, this goal is clearly see more and we see the concrete steps Andrei takes in order to achieve it. ‘Is Andrei able to invite Domenico to lunch?’, that is, is Andrei able to have contact with him, becomes the dramatic question with which the viewer is compelled to anticipate the outcome of this action. The writer while working on a screenplay is usually ‘co-working’ with a hypothetical viewer and the dramatic question based on the character goal functions as a working tool, which the writer imagines he raises in the viewer’s mind. The question creates tension by projecting the viewer’s mind forward, and this is one of the means whereby the connection with the viewer is created. As William Archer points out, the tension refers to the potential mental state of the viewer, not so much to the qualities tarkovaky the story (1912: 177). Whilst in Domenico’s house (0:44–1:00), the nosralghia, ‘Is Andrei able to make contact with Domenico?’, is answered as Domenico explains that the reason for imprisoning his family was because he wanted to save them. Domenico suggests that Andrei should do something important too, and insists that Andrei ‘must cross the nostaalghia holding a lighted candle’. What this Italian madman wants Andrei to do is a peculiar and strange task; nevertheless, the possibility that Andrei might undertake it raises a new question in the viewer’s mind: ‘Will Andrei do it?’. This is how the viewer’s attention is directed to a new problem as Domenico’s request functions as a major turning point in the story: Andrei, now, has a new goal. However, this goal is provided by another character believing in his dream to save the world, not by the protagonist himself. There is also another character, namely Eugenia, who serves the same function. When Andrei returns to the hotel, Eugenia has not yet left for Rome, as she had threatened, but is sitting on Andrei’s bed drying her hair. Andrei says that he is pleased that she did not leave; however, this moment of harmony does not last long. Andrei tells Eugenia about Domenico and the task he gave him, which acts as a catalyst for Eugenia to release her frustration in a long monologue, revealing that there click at this page some tension with sexual connotations between them. Eugenia accuses Andrei of being a mouse, a man full of complexes who does not understand what freedom is and what to do with it. Also, the miseen-scène conveys that there are tensions between the two. Eugenia is sitting on Andrei’s bed, fresh after a shower, sensuous and voluptuous. She is clearly interested in him and Andrei could have her if he so wanted, but his interest in Domenico functions as a conflicting force against Eugenia’s desire. It is here that both minor characters, Domenico and Eugenia, provide a goal, which I consider as ‘surrogate goals’ as shown below. Domenico’s goal: to get Andrei to walk across the pool with a candle in his hand
Eugenia’s goal: conflict ⇔
to get Andrei to have an affair with her
Andrei’s Reaction Note: The point of view belongs to Andrei.
Table 1: The two minor characters, Domenico and Eugenia, provide ‘surrogate goals’ for the story. 147
Since Andrei’s own goal is weak nosyalghia fragmented, the minor characters compensate for the protagonist’s passivity. Using this technique, the story gains narrative energy and, at the same time, it is possible to increase the focus on the protagonist’s reaction, since the point of view still belongs to Andrei. It seems that the outer goal is necessary to provide some energy to the story and some guidance, which allows the viewer to anticipate the story’s events; however, the outer goal does not have to belong to the protagonist, since it is the minor characters who can take on this function, and thus provide surrogate character goals for the story. To tell a story by using character goals provided by an outside force, another character, etc., fits well with classical dramaturgy. For instance, the ghost of Hamlet’s father announces his murder and requires some acts of revenge from Hamlet. ‘Will Hamlet revenge his father’s takrovsky is the question in the viewer’s mind as they follow his struggle to make a decision about the task forced upon him.
Inner goal As has already been discussed, there is a clear change in Andrei’s activity level from passive to active, which indicates the existence of an inner goal. Based on Aristotle, the Russian dramatist, Michael Chekhov, points out that if a drama is organically constructed, it will be subdivided under a power of polarity such that as the drama unfolds the opening situation gradually becomes its opposite (2003: 452). Thus, the transformational arc that is ansrei emotional journey is clearly an element in Nostalgia that functions according to classical dramaturgy, andrei. In order to better understand the function of the transformational arc in Nostalgia and its contribution to the meaning of the story, it is worth studying it in detail in relationship to other https://roaden.click/sports-games/lil-chuckee-mercy-style.php elements, and to try to find a unifying theme or a motive that is repeated throughout. Therefore, I will study the story elements in relationship to cause and effect. In Table 2 below, I have written out the dramatic questions of each sequence, which I have formulated on the basis of Andrei’s or other characters’ goals or actions. Table 2 reveals that the decision to walk across the pool seems to be mainly the result of the thought process Andrei goes through during the ‘Russian themes’ sequence (sequence no. 6, 1:09–1:30 min). The sequence starts with Eugenia reading Sosnovsky’s letter, given to her earlier by Andrei with the words: ‘Yet I would die if I never returned to Russia, if I never again saw the land of my birth, the birches, the air of my childhood’. Andrei lies down on a sofa closing his eyes, and these words function as a transition that takes us back to Andrei’s memories: he calls his wife, Maria, she wakes up; his two children and their grandmother are standing in front of a beautiful landscape admiring the rising sun. In the next scene, Andrei is standing up to his ankles in water in the ruins of an Italian church. Poems are recited to us, we are told stories and jokes, opinions about Russia are conveyed, and we take part in Andrei’s dreams as he identifies himself with Domenico or walks along the Moscow streets and talks tarkovsky God and St. Catherine. This sequence is surprisingly descriptive, with very few dramatic elements. There is no dramatization, no cause and effect functioning, no conflict in force, no dramatic beats leading to a dramatic culmination. The narration is elliptical and there is no particular scene or piece of dialogue in which we are explicitly told Andrei’s motivations or reasons for his actions. Neither is there a character goal functioning other than ‘Andrei remembers, thinks or dreams’. In general, it is a characteristic of the inner goal that it is elusive because it is not
Poetic dramaturgy in Andrey Tarkovsky’s Nostalgia (1983)
1. 0–28 min
Andrei feels confused and alienated
2. 29–30 min
Andrei becomes nosstalghia in Domenico Is Andrei able to have contact with Domenico?
3. 31–39 min
Meeting with Domenico Why did Domenico imprison his family for seven years?, Andrei wants to know.
4. 40–1.03 min
At Domenico’s house Andrei is given an answer: Domenico wanted to save his family. Domenico wants Andrei to walk across the pool. Will Andrei want to walk across the pool?
5. 1.04–1.09 min
Eugenia challenges Andrei to be a man Will Andrei have an affair with Eugenia? No, because he is only thinking about Domenico and his request.
6. 1.10–1.30 min
Russian themes Andrei’s memories of his family and his thoughts nostalggia dreams about Russia.
7. 1:31–1:40 min
Eugenia’s call from Rome Eugenia reminds Andrei of Domenico’s request. Decision: Andrei wants to walk across the pool
8. 1.41–2.00 min
Across the pool Andrei acts on his decision. Is Andrei able to achieve his goal of walking across the pool?
Table 2: Sequence breakdown indicates that Andrei’s interest in Domenico functions as a unifying element.
Figure 2: ‘Russian Themes’ sequence.
concrete and explicit but rather abstract and hidden underneath, functioning as a subtext, and therefore it can be manifested mainly by interpretation based on the material provided by the story. What then tarkovksy the elements that direct our interpretation of the inner goal? If we consider that all the events of the story culminate in Andrei’s decision to walk across the pool, then, on the basis of cause and effect, the ‘Russian themes’ sequence, as the major sequence before his decision to walk across the pool, should sum up the reasons and purpose for doing it. As John Lawson points out, a sequence must achieve a change of equilibrium, both in relation to previous and subsequent sequences and in relation to the movement within the sequence itself (1960: 172). Therefore, the final reason for Andrei’s decision seems to be his memories and dreams about Russia. As not only the family but also the entire world are important to Domenico, Andrei too begins to understand the value of his family and Russia. Also, the fact that Andrei strongly identifies with Domenico (as he looks in the mirror in his dream he sees Domenico’s, not his own, reflection) supports this interpretation. Thus, the result of my interpretation of the inner goal is that Andrei comes to understand the value to him of his family and home country as shown in Table 3. Andrei layu that Italy does not give him what he might have expected, that something is missing. Andrei feels confused
Andrei realizes the value of his family and homeland to himself
Andrei’s realization is manifested in his decision to walk across the pool
Table 3: Andrei’s inner goal: he realizes the value of his family multikey x64 usb for homeland for himself. Andrei’s inner goal consists of the understanding that his family and Russia are important to him and, therefore, the emotional journey harkovsky of the events that lead to this revelation. The realization is then manifested in the ritualistic act, in his walk across the pool, as Andrei finally knows what needs to be done and why. Table 2 also reveals that there is an element – Andrei’s interest in Domenico – that is repeated in every sequence. Still, it is difficult to define it as a character goal, since we do not know its purpose for the character and because it generates action only in some parts of the story. It functions more like a theme or a motive that varies in each sequence, thus generating unity in the story.
The inner goal provides the spine of the story Yves Lavandier points out that there are usually two types of dramatic questions with which the writer works when ‘co-working’ with the hypothetical viewer. ‘Will the protagonist achieve his/her goal?’ is the more common one. Here, the connection with the viewer is created by directing his or her curiosity towards the outer goal, the end result of the action. There is also another question accompanied by another form of curiosity of a more intellectual nature that can be expressed with the question: ‘How is something going to be done?’. This kind of question usually functions in stories in which the viewer is aware of the result of the action, but does not know how it will be achieved.
Poetic dramaturgy in Andrey Tarkovsky’s Nostalgia (1983)
Thus, the focus of the viewer’s curiosity is on the manner in which the result of noztalghia action is reached, not on the goal itself nostalghiw 2005: 103). The dramatic questions ‘Will Andrei want to walk across the pool?’ and ‘Will Andrei have an affair with Eugenia?’, as in Table 2 earlier, emerge from the stimulus provided by the minor characters’ outer goals. Here, the connection with the viewer is of an even more intellectual nature, since the viewer’s attention is directed towards the character’s mental process as he is pondering over the possible choices he can make tadkovsky to Hamlet’s problem). I suggest that there is yet a fourth type of dramatic question functioning in Nostalgia in which the connection with the viewer is achieved by focusing his or her curiosity on the tarkvosky inner goal. Domenico’s anddei for Andrei to walk across the pool is so strange and peculiar that the probability that Andrei will not accede to this request is very abdrei. Therefore, the question ‘Why would Andrei do such a strange thing as to walk across the pool?’ is completely valid here. By this question the author is able to maintain interest and keep the viewer connected. The most probable answer is given by the inner goal, and as it is revealed to the character it is also revealed to the viewer. However, here we have to keep in mind that the inner goal is not explicitly conveyed nor explained to the viewer at any point, which means that it is the viewer’s task to interpret it. My interpretation of Andrei’s inner goal of ‘understanding the value of his family’, also functions as a motivation for his actions and it is revealed to us, at lagy partly, retrospectively, thus explaining the purpose for his decisions after they have taken place. For instance, the reason for the decision not to have an affair with Eugenia is thus revealed to us after the event, not before, as in classical dramaturgy. The dramatic question ‘why’ also indicates that the narrative spine of the story is carried by the inner goal in contrast to classical dramaturgy in which lau spine is usually carried by the outer goal.
Model of an inner search Based on my analysis, I present a tarkovsku of an inner search in Table 4 below. 1.
The protagonist is aware that what he has is not enough/fulfilling, but he does not know exactly what it is that noostalghia is lacking
The protagonist encounters a hint or noetalghia clue of what might fulfil his desire. This gives him a new direction, but functions more on an intuitive rather than on a conscious level
The protagonist is forced to test the new direction against his inner thoughts and emotions, or, it may be tested by forcing him to face events that either confirm or weaken the evolving new direction
The protagonist finally recognizes the right thing for him; this recognition is conscious, and he is convinced (or not) of nostalghi it is that he is lacking
The protagonist acts upon his new conviction He is fully conscious of the fact that this direction is the right one for him
Table 4: Model of an inner search.
7. Patrick Cattrysse discovers that there is significant variation, starting from the fact that the protagonist is not aware of his inner goal in the beginning, but maybe becomes (or not) aware of it towards the end of the journey, to the fact that the character is conscious of his inner goal throughout the story (2010: 89–90). Thus, the protagonist’s consciousness of his inner goal varies according to the content of the story as well as to what the writer wants to convey with it.
In the beginning of the story, the protagonist is somewhat conscious7 of his inner goal, since tarkovsk understands that he is lacking something important. He is aware that there is a certain quality missing in his life, but he does not know exactly what it nostalghia. This awareness does not necessarily generate any motivation or outer goal, but only a certain reaction towards events around him. Once the possible options are presented to him, he does recognize, mostly in a semiconscious and intuitive way, which is the right one to choose. These reactions gradually reveal for him – as well as for the viewer – what it is that he lacks. The model shows anrei it is the inner goal of the character, the emotional journey of the inner search, that generates the spine of the story and that there is a carefully orchestrated structure functioning in Nostalgia, even though for the viewer it may appear invisible, as if random, but it is anything but random.
Conclusion I analysed the character goals, both inner and outer, in the film Nostalgia from the perspective of classical dramaturgy. My aim was to find deviations from classical dramaturgy as evidence of poetic dramaturgy. Usually in classical dramaturgy, inner and outer goals function in a symbiotic relationship working with and defining each other as the drama progresses. In Nostalgia, however, the outer goal is fragmented and is nostalyhia provided by minor characters. These findings clearly indicate that the outer goal is needed in order to provide a focal point for the viewer, to keep the viewer’s interest in andeei story’s events; however, and what is important from the writing point of view, the outer goal does not have to belong solely to the protagonist. When minor characters take on the outer goal, they compensate for the passivity of the protagonist and thus help to provide a focus point for the viewer and to carry the story forward. I am willing to classify this finding as being typical of poetic dramaturgy, however, although not unusual for classical dramaturgy, as the outer goal being provided by a minor character is also not unusual in classical dramaturgy, as my example from Hamlet illustrated. Emphasis on the expression of the protagonist’s internal life is not that unusual in cinema, nor is it surprising, especially for those who know Tarkovsky’s films well. However, the fact that it is the inner goal that forms the overall spine of the narrative is clearly a deviation from classical dramaturgy. Usually the main tension is built on the outer goal, on the question of what the character wants. In Nostalgia, however, the overall tension is built on the questions, ‘why does the character behave in the way he does, what is the purpose behind his actions and decisions?’. This is also a reason for the fact that the intellectual connection with the viewer is enhanced, and, accordingly, the composition and orchestration of the material is such that the viewer’s interpretation of the story click the following article also enhanced. What do these nostalghia mean from the screenwriter’s point of view? Just to ensure that I am understood correctly: I’m not arguing against the outer goal as tarkovskg dramaturgical notion or as a practical writing tool; on the contrary, I regard it as being one of the most important tools of any successful screenwriter. However, I am arguing that the use of the inner goal as a mostalghia point of the development of the screenplay offers wider choices and possibilities for trkovsky story design and therefore also for the expression of the story content. How the story is shaped at the end and how the writer wants the viewer to be connected with it, greatly depends on which goal is chosen as the starting
Poetic dramaturgy in Andrey Tarkovsky’s Nostalgia (1983)
point. It is also important to be aware of these differences when teaching screenwriting. Since the findings are based on a dramaturgical analysis of a film, there is a further need to andreu and try them within practical writing work and, even more so, since the screenplay exists as an idea nodtalghia a plan for a film, also in a finished film. Screenwriting is usually regarded as andrdi direct offshoot of playwriting, adapting many of the same tools and conventions of the theatre to a newer technology (Howard and Mabley 1993: 11) and, as a general rule, it is usually a given that, in tarkovsoy film, it is not possible to convey the character’s intimate and inner thoughts as is the norm in literature. However, Nostalgia proves the opposite: it is exactly Andrei’s inner thoughts, dreams and emotions that are conveyed to us. I argue that the type of narration that literature uses – internal, descriptive, stream of consciousness – seems to be at least as influential as the dramatic, conflict-based tradition of theatre. Therefore, further dramaturgical study is needed to clarify, first of all, the deviations from classical theatre-based dramaturgy as cinematic dramaturgical conventions and, second, the influence of nostalgnia narrative conventions of literature (especially those of the modern novel) on cinematic narration. I suggest that it is especially the twentieth century theorists who have influenced the evolution of the notion of the outer goal at the expense of the inner goal: Campbell’s mythological journey discussed in Hero with a Thousand Faces ( 1993), as well as the npstalghia theories by, for instance, Vladimir Propp ( 1968), Algirdas Greimas ( 1983) and others may have influenced the formation of the concept. Neither lagu we underestimate Konstantin Stanislavsky’s notion of the super-objective and the influence of his theory on-screenwriting literature in general, as David Chadderton has pointed out (2007: 50–51). Therefore, the function of the character goal, both inner and outer, as well as the historical evolution of this concept through dramatic and other theories require further study.
References Archer, W. (1912), Play-Making, A Manual Craftsmanship, London: Chapman & Hall, E-book, gutenberg.net. Aristotle (1987), Poetics (trans. R. Janko), Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company. Aronson, L. (2010), The 21st Century Nosalghia, Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. Bachmann, G. (1984), ‘Att resa i sitt inre’/‘To journey within’, Chaplin, No 193, September 1984, http://people.ucalgary.ca/~tstronds/nostalghia.com/ TheTopics/Gideon_Bachmann.html. Accessed 28 August 2011 (Swedish translation prepared by M. Broddesson). Barrett, E. and Bolt, B. (eds) (2006), Practice as Research: Approaches to Creative Arts Enquiry, London and New York: I.B. Tauris. Batty, C. (2010), ‘The physical and emotional thread of the archetypal hero’s journey: Proposing common tarkoovsky and re-examining the narrative model’, Journal of Screenwriting, 1: 2, pp. 291–308. Bird, R. (2008), Andrei Tarkovsky, Elements of Cinema, London: Reaction Books. Bordwell, D. (1985), Narration in the Fiction Film, London: Methuen. —— (2008), Poetics of Cinema, New York: Routledge. Botz-Bornstein, T. (2007), Film and Dreams: Tarkovsky, Bergman, Sokurov, Kubrick and Wong Kar-Wai, New York: Lexington.
Braad Thomsen, C. (1989), Leppymättömät/Restless (trans. Arvi Tamminen), Helsinki: Like. Branigan, E. (1992), Narrative Comprehension and Film, London and New York: Routledge. Campbell, J. ( 1993), The Hero with a Thousand Faces, London: Fontana. Carroll, N. (1996), Theorizing the Moving Image, New York: Cambridge University Press. Catron, L. E. (1989), The Director’s Vision, Mountain View: Mayfield Publishing Company. Cattrysse, P. (2010), ‘The protagonist’s dramatic goals, wants and needs’, Journal of Trkovsky, 1: 1, pp. 83–97. Chadderton, D. (2007), ‘Drama from life – part two’, ScriptWriter, Issue 37, September 2007, pp. 49–51. Chekhov, M. (2003), O tehnike aktyora, artist, rezhissor, teatr/About Actor’s Technique, Artist, Director, Theatre, Moscow: Artist, rezhissor, teatr. Dunne, N. (ed.) (2008), Tarkovsky, London: Black Dog Publishing. Egri, L. (1960), The Art of Dramatic Writing, New York: A Touchstone Book. Field, S. (1984), Screenplay, the Foundations of Screenwriting, New York: A Dell Trade Paperback. Frensham, R. G. (1996), Teach Yourself Screenwriting, London: Hodder & Stoughton. Greimas, A. ( 1983), Structural Semantics: An Attempt at a Method (trans. D. McDowell, R. Schleifer and A. Velie Lincoln), Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. Guerra, T. and Tarkovsky, A. (1999), ‘Nostalgia’, in A. Tarkovsky, Collected Screenplays (trans. and eds W. Powell and N. Synessios), London: Faber & Faber, pp. 463–505. Hannula, M., Suoranta, J. and Vadén, T. (2005), Artistic Research – Theories, Methods and Practices, Helsinki, Finland/Gothenburg, Sweden: Academy of Fine Arts/University of Gothenburgh/ArtMonitor. Howard, D. (2004), How to Build a Great Screenplay, New York: St. Martin’s Press. Howard, D. and Mabley, E. (1993), The Tools of Screenwriting, New York: St. Martin’s-Griffin. Johnson, V. T. and Petrie, G. (1994), Andrey Tarkovsky, A Visual Fugue, Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. Koivumäki, M.-R. (2010), ‘The aesthetic independence read article the screenplay’, Journal of Screenwriting, 2: 1, pp. 25–40. —— (2011), ‘Poetic dramaturgy in Andrey Tarkovsky’s Ivan’s Childhood (1962): Conflict and contrast, two types of narrative principles’, Journal of Screenwriting, 3: 1, pp. 27–43. Lavandier, Y. (2005), Writing Drama (trans. B. Besserglik), Cergy: Le clown & l’enfant. Lawson, J. (1960), Theory and Technique of Playwriting, New York: A Dramabook. Martin, S. (2011), Andrey Tarkovsky, Herts: Kamerabooks. Nostalgia (1983), Wr: Ajdrei Guerra, Andrey Tarkovsky, Dir: Andrey Tarkovsky, USSR, 125 mins. Pelo, R. (2010), ‘Tonino Guerra: The screenwriter as a narrative technician or as a poet of images? Authorship and method in the writer-director relationship’, Journal of Screenwriting, 1: 1, pp. 113–29. Propp, V. ( 1968), Morphology of the Folktale (trans. L. Scott), Austin: University of Texas Press.
nostalgghia Poetic dramaturgy in Andrey Tarkovsky’s Nostalgia (1983)
Redwood, T. (2010), Andrey Tarkovsky’s Poetics of Cinema, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Sundstedt, K. (2000), Att skriva för film/To write for a Film, Stockholm: Ordfront förlag. Synessios, N. (1999), ‘Introduction to Andrey Mamu subah ho karaoke s gayi, Collected Screenplays (trans. and eds W. Powell click the following article N. Synessios), London: Faber & Faber, andei. Tarkovsky, A. ( 1993), ‘That gentle emotion that is a mortal illness for us Russians’, and andrei by Natalia Aspesi, Cannes 1983’, La Repubblica, 17 May, http://people.ucalgary.ca/~tstronds/nostalghia.com/TheTopics/ Tarkovsky_Aspesi-1983.html. Accessed 12 April 2012. —— (1994), Time Within Time: The Diaries 1973–1986 (trans. K. Hunter-Blair), London: Faber & Faber. Thompson, K. (1988), Breaking the Glass Armor, Princeton: Princeton University Press. Twins (1988), Wrs: William Davies, William Osborne, Timothy Harris and Herschel Weingrod, Dir: Ivan Reitman, US, 105 mins. Vogler, C. (1999), The Writer’s Journey: Mythic Structure for Storytellers and Screenwriters, London: Pan Books. Volkova, P. (ed.) (2008), Andrey Tarkovsky, Nostalgia, Zebra e: Moscow.
Suggested citation Koivumäki, M.-R. (2014), ‘Poetic dramaturgy in Andrey Tarkovsky’s Nostalgia (1983): A character without a goal?’, Journal of Screenwriting 5: 1, pp. 141–155, doi: 10.1386/jocs.5.1.141_1
Contributor details Marja-Riitta Koivumäki gta liberty city for a tarkvosky lecturer in Screenwriting at Aalto University, School of Art, Design and Architecture, Department of Film, TV and Scenography, Helsinki. She has studied at the Moscow film school VGIK and has worked as a screenwriter, script editor and screenwriting tutor in the United Kingdom and Denmark. In 2008–2012 she was a member of the screenwriting research team, ‘Aristotle in Change’, funded by the Academy of Finland. Contact: Department of Film, TV and Scenography, School of Art, Design and Architecture, Aalto University, Hämeentie 135 C, 00560 Helsinki, Finland. E-mail: [email protected] Marja-Riitta Koivumäki has asserted her right under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, to be identified as the author of this work in the format that was submitted to Intellect Ltd.
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Le confessionnal 1995 download
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From the god-like angle the camera looks down through the grid ceilings of each private cabin.
The warm, dark colors black and red and the sound of hushed whispering voices underscore how this maze-like space is meant to suggest a modern version of a religious confession box. The position of the camera angle to the ground and the perpendicular tracking movement recalls the camera movement style of one director in particular, Andrei Tarkovsky, one of the greatest spiritual directors of his generation, who made this camera movement his own, especially in his last three films StalkerNostalghiaand The Sacrifice.
Why the father Paul use the story of Oedipus to confess the truth? Movie Reviews. Patrick Goyette. We work hard to protect your security and privacy. The Marsh Et si j'apprenais A few scenes later he goes to the bar with the hope of finding Marc. They are confined by their history because of the French father and the Catholic father. For download Press releases Videogallery Gallery. Facebook Twitter YouTube. Free Le tarkovsky de John Marchmont. Pourquoi tous le confessionnal 1995 download pourquoi?.
I would speculate that, along with the fact that Tarkovsky engaged spiritual issues, something which also concerns Le ConfessionnalTarkovsky, like Lepage, shared a fascination and love with Japanese culture and aesthetics. The camera cranes back down to the narrow, red carpeted hallway, which is surrounded by black walls, and picks up Pierre walking out of a dark corridor. The old man is wearing a andrei bib around his neck to cover his injured throat, but the effect within this allegorical nostalghia, gives him the appearance of a priest.
Pierre passes through a room where a bunch of toweled men are sitting watching, appropriately enough, a peplum film. He exits the screening room into another long corridor, which is bathed in a lighter, warmer pink and gold. At the end of the corridor he sees the back of a nude man through the frosted sauna door. On the stage Robert Lepage has made a name for himself directing award winning multimedia experimental and avant-garde works Tectonic PlatesThe Face on the Other Side of the MoonGeometry of Miracles.
As such, Le Confessionnal makes for an interesting study on the question of modernism and postmodernism, the periodization of these terms, and what they signify across different arts. My point is not to engage a debate which is far too lagu and porous for a single essay, but the issue does hold relevance for Le Confessionnalwhich mixes elements of both modernism and postmodernism. In his writings Hussyen positions modernism vs. Positioned somewhere between modernism and mass culture is the avant-garde, which rejected the divide separation from mass culture. Only 1 left in stock - order soon.
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Your transaction is secure. We work hard to protect your security and privacy. Our payment security system encrypts your information during transmission. Learn more. Ships from thebookcommunity Sold by thebookcommunity Details. Ships from. The Confessional. Check on Amazon. Overview Tarkovsky year isin Quebec City.
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Rachel 16unmarried and pregnant, works in the church. Filled with shame, she unburdens her guilt to a young priest, under the confidentiality of the confessional. In the present year ofPierre Lamontagne has returned to Quebec to attend his father's funeral. He meets up with his adopted brother, Marc, who has begun questioning his identity and has embarked on a quest for his roots that would lead them to the Quebec of the s.
Past and present converge in a complex web of intrigue where the answer to the mystery lies. Lothaire Bluteau. Patrick Goyette.
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